Who killed francis macomber by hemingway essay

The main themes of this story are courage and cowardice which are shown through all three characters: Francis, Wilson, and Margot. When he encountered a wounded lion, he ran in fear and had to be saved by Wilson, the tour guide. This one decision cost Francis everything.

Who killed francis macomber by hemingway essay

Ernest Hemingway

Francis Macomber is on an African safari; Macomber is thirty-five years old, a trim, fit man who holds a number of big-game fishing records. However, at the moment, he has just demonstrated that he is a coward.

However, members of the safari are acting as though "nothing had happened. In a flashback, the reader realizes that Macomber and his beautiful wife, Margot, are wealthy Americans, and that this jaunt is their first safari — and that Macomber, when faced with his first lion, bolted and fled, earning the contempt of his wife.

Of course, though, she has been contemptuous of him for some time; Francis' running from the lion like a scared rabbit has only increased her dislike for her unmanly husband. She makes no secret of this as she slips off in the middle of the night for a rendezvous with the safari guide, Robert Wilson.

Next day, as she observes Francis gaining a measure of courage as he engages in a standoff with a charging water buffalo, she realizes that if Francis continues to prove himself strong and willful and courageous, he might leave her and rid himself forever of her sharp-tongued ridicule.

As the standoff with the second water buffalo becomes more intense as the water buffalo's horns inch closer and closer to goring Francis, Margot takes aim at the water buffalo, shooting Francis in the back of the head, and he dies at the most courageous moment of his "short happy life.

For example, Margot points out that the face of Robert Wilson, the safari guide, is red from too much sun ; Francis Macomber replies that his face is also red; however, his is red from embarrassment.

In contrast to the two men, Margo comments that her face is the one that is red today because of all the shame she feels for her husband. Behind all of this talk about red faces, however, is the fact that after Francis' act of cowardice, Margot leans forward in their motor car and kisses Wilson while Macomber looks on.

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That night, Margot visits Wilson's tent and has sex with him. Interestingly, Hemingway points out that Wilson always carries a double-size cot for just such occasions as this one; obviously, Wilson is a womanizer and in a sense a prostitute. In this story, the situation of the hunter and the hunted takes on far more significance than merely humans hunting for African lions and water buffaloes.

Consider who is stalking whom in this story. Francis knows that Margot is stalking Wilson, and Wilson realizes that Francis knows who Margot's prey is. Francis Macomber even admits that he feels "beaten," defeated by this sexual safari, because when Wilson explains that he always gives the natives lashes rather than fine them, Macomber adds that "We all take a beating every day.

Hemingway admired men who were outsiders, who defied conventional morality and the so-called rules of society. Wilson makes his own rules: If he illegally lashes the natives, it is not because he's sadistic; he simply knows that they'd rather suffer than lose money.

It's a simple exchange. Likewise, if he thinks he can bed a woman or women who hires him as a safari guide, he takes a double-wide cot on safari; he's not troubled that Francis knows that he is having sex with Margo. Wilson's code is the survival of the fittest, and initially, Francis Macomber proves that he is not fit — although Hemingway stresses at the beginning of this story that Macomber "looked" fit — tall, well-built, trim and healthy.

The irony is unmistakable. Wilson likewise does not abide by conventional rules for hunting game during safaris.

Who killed francis macomber by hemingway essay

Although there's a law against hunting game from vehicles, Wilson thinks that it's far more exciting and dangerous to chase game at high speed. He wants — and needs — the adrenaline rush of danger.

Tracking game on foot is child's play. Fully aware that he would face legal action were the officials in Nairobi to find out that he hunts from moving vehicles, Wilson defies the odds — until Macomber reveals how dangerous a "hunter" his wife, Margot, is: Were this a game of poker, she'd hold the winning hand.

Thus Wilson knows that, somehow, he must regain the upper hand over Margo. Wilson's attitude toward Francis Macomber fluctuates. When Macomber wants to leave the wounded lion, Wilson tells him that "it isn't done. Wilson's flaw is his inability to perceive the psychological state of mind of his clients.

In contrast, readers are absolutely aware that Macomber is extremely upset about displaying his cowardice; it began in the night, when he awoke and heard the old lion roaring and then couldn't get back to sleep.Francis Macomber -wealthy -married his wife for her beauty -lacks confidence and courage for the majority of the story -American -thirty-five years old Margaret (Margot) Macomber -wife of Francis -again beauty -bitch -has cheated on Read more.

- The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber In Ernest Hemingway's story, "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber," Francis Macomber, according to Hemingway, is a very unhappy man because of his cowardly display after facing a wounded lion and because of his inability to stand up to his wife.

The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber by Ernest Hemingway Essay - The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber by Ernest Hemingway "Death is not the biggest fear we have; our biggest fear is taking the risk to be alive." Yet death is something that is inevitable, and for some shortcoming.

The Short Happy Life Of Francis Macomber Summary SuperSummary, a modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics.

Mar 11,  · Theme of Carpe Diem in Francis Macomber and Capital Of The World The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber and The Capital Of The World A lot of Hemingway’s stories deal with life and death. Death even found it’s way into some of the titles we have read so far.

- The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber In Ernest Hemingway's story, "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber," Francis Macomber, according to Hemingway, is a very unhappy man because of his cowardly display after facing a wounded lion and because of his inability to stand up to his wife.

The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber - Wikipedia