Earthrise taken from Apollo 8 on December 24, The idea of the Earth as an integrated whole, a living being, has a long tradition. James Lovelock gave this name to his hypothesis after a suggestion from the novelist William Goldingwho was living in the same village as Lovelock at the time BowerchalkeWiltshireUK. Golding's advice was based on Gea, an alternative spelling for the name of the Greek goddess, which is used as prefix in geology, geophysics and geochemistry.
Models can predict that the ice will melt but you really need to engage in real world observations and measurements to determine if the ice is actually melting, and if so, by how much.
So how can we do this? We need to look at glacial mass balance and determine if there is a net change in the volume of ice. This involves a systems modelling approach and is a comparison or ratio of glacial changes across the firn line. If the system is balanced then the mass lost will equal the mass gained.
If more ice is being lost than is being Warning hyphothesis then the glacier is losing mass. There is something of a paradox in that a glacier can retreat and still gain mass, similarly it can advance whilst losing mass.
The GMB calculations will tell us if a particular glacier is gaining or losing mass and by repeating the process at several sites and on different glaciers we can built up an overall picture of glacial behaviour in the region. If glaciers are losing mass then more water will be entering the seas and oceans and the levels will be rising.
Conversely, sea-levels will be falling if more water is being locked up in the glaciers. Sea-levels are indeed rising, by some 3. We know that the area of seas and oceans is approx million square kilometres we can therefore calculate that the increase in volume of the seas and oceans is 1.
Can we therefore say that 1. There are other factors that are causing sea-levels to rise, the most significant one of which is the thermal expansion of the waters as they warm up.
Some temperature measurements across the planet and knowing the density of sea-water at different temps enables us to calculate that of the 3. The other factor we need to account for is isostatic or post-glacial rebound. The immense masses of ice deformed the land beneath and pushed the surface of the Earth downward, displacing the liquid mantle beneath.
After allowing for other factors we can deduce that 1. I hope the makes sense, if not please add details and I'll try to address them when I'm a bit more awake.Intrusions of this nature can be viewed as “warning signals.” Ehlers and colleagues hypothesize that intrusive memories for individuals with PTSD do not usually represent the most traumatic aspects of the traumatic experience, but rather contain auditory and visual intrusions that may be .
This last working hypothesis provides a long-term historical perspective that adds a whole new level of meaning to the first four. In The Human Story (In Context #12, Winter ), I described human history as comprised .
A gradual increase in the temperature of the atomosphere and the oceans, observed since the late 19th century and thought to be due to the so-called greenhouse effect (reduction in radiation of heat from the Earth by an increase in CO 2 concentration of the atomsphere).
Possible public health effects of global warming include shifts in the habitats of pathogenic organisms and vectors, food. May 06, · Whether the anthropogenic global warning hypothesis is invalid or merely incomplete, the time has come for serious debate and reanalysis.
Since Dr. Pielke first published his challenge in , no critical attempts have been made to explain these failed projections.
A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, "If the government required statistical procedures to carry warning labels like those on drugs, most inference methods would have long labels indeed." This caution applies to hypothesis tests and alternatives to them.
Gray had strong disagreement with the science behind the human-induced global warming hypothesis, and devoted the major portion of the last decade to .