Graphic Scenes of the Japan Expedition, This work consists of a regular title page, an illustrated title page, ten large folio lithographic prints including two colored and eight color tinted and ten accompanying text pages.
The Ishango bone Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi clay spheres, cones, etc.
The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented.
In a medieval European counting housea checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money. The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J.
It was discovered in in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikytherabetween Kythera and Creteand has been dated to circa BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later.
Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use. A combination of the planisphere and dioptrathe astrolabe was effectively an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy.
An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer   and gear -wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of IsfahanPersia in The sectora calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, multiplication and division, and for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying and navigation.
The planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage. A slide rule The slide rule was invented around —, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm.
It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division. As slide rule development progressed, added scales provided reciprocals, squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots, as well as transcendental functions such as logarithms and exponentials, circular and hyperbolic trigonometry and other functions.
Slide rules with special scales are still used for quick performance of routine calculations, such as the E6B circular slide rule used for time and distance calculations on light aircraft.
In the s, Pierre Jaquet-Droza Swiss watchmakerbuilt a mechanical doll automata that could write holding a quill pen. By switching the number and order of its internal wheels different letters, and hence different messages, could be produced.
In effect, it could be mechanically "programmed" to read instructions. It used a system of pulleys and wires to automatically calculate predicted tide levels for a set period at a particular location.
The differential analysera mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integrationused wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration. InLord Kelvin had already discussed the possible construction of such calculators, but he had been stymied by the limited output torque of the ball-and-disk integrators.
The torque amplifier was the advance that allowed these machines to work. Starting in the s, Vannevar Bush and others developed mechanical differential analyzers. Charles Babbagean English mechanical engineer and polymathoriginated the concept of a programmable computer.
Considered the " father of the computer ",  he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his revolutionary difference enginedesigned to aid in navigational calculations, in he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Enginewas possible.
|Digital Reference Collection for Concertinas||The Ishango bone Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers.|
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|What's New||History[ edit ] Geocoding — a subset of Geographic Information System GIS spatial analysis — has been a subject of interest since the early s. Roger Tomlinsonwho has since been acknowledged as the father of GIS.|
The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cardsa method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom.the application of lean thinking to pharmaceutical quality systems, defining the fda as the customer _____ a thesis presented.
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PremChand Kumar & Ekta Walia 62 a) Time-series Method b) Factor analysis Method c) Expert system approach Time Series Method This method predicts future cash requirement based on the past values of variable and/or past errors.
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Geocoding is the computational process of transforming a physical address description to a location on the Earth's surface (spatial representation in numerical coordinates).
Reverse geocoding, on the other hand, converts geographic coordinates to a description of a location, usually the name of a place or an addressable location.
Geocoding relies on a computer representation of address points. Step 4: Select one or more sort criteria. (Hint: Use CTRL to select multiple items.).