Fascism and Post-War Period Strategically placed at the gateway to the Italian peninsula, Milan and the surrounding region of Lombardy have been the subject of constant disputes over the centuries. Celts, Romans, Goths, Lombards, Spaniards and Austrians have all ruled the city at some stage of its history and for the most part, the city has capitalised on its position and has emerged today as the undisputed economic and cultural powerhouse of a united Italy, not without occasionally fighting back against foreign dominators.
History[ edit ] The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region  north of Florence, and they are first mentioned in a document of Medici is the plural of medicomeaning "medical doctor". But inone of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, and the city of Siena lost its status as the banking center of Italy to Florence.
Inthe Ordinances of Justice were enacted; effectively, they became the constitution of the Republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance. The Medici controlled the Medici Bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence and elsewhere.
Inthe Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Florence remained a republic untiltraditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during intervals after and Cosimo and Lorenzo rarely held official posts but were the unquestioned leaders.
The Medici family was connected to most other elite families of the time through marriages of conveniencepartnerships, or employment, so the family had a central position in the social network: Some examples of these families include the BardiAltovitiRidolfi, Cavalcanti and the Tornabuoni.
This has been suggested as a reason for the rise of the Medici family. Despite the presence of some Medici in the city's government institutionsthey were still far less notable than other outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi.
One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt ofand one Antonio de' Medici was exiled from Florence in Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his support for the introduction of a proportional system of taxation.
Giovanni's son Cosimo the ElderPater Patriae father of the countrytook over in as gran maestro the unofficial head of the Florentine Republic.
They clearly dominated Florentine representative government without abolishing it altogether. When Lorenzo died inhowever, his son Piero proved quite incapable of responding successfully to challenges caused by the French invasion of Italy inand within two years, he and his supporters were forced into exile and replaced with a republican government.
He was called "Piero the Gouty" because of the gout that pained his foot and led to his death. Unlike his father, Piero had little interest in the arts.
Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore did little to further the Medici control of Florence while in power.
As such, Medici rule stagnated until the next generation, when Piero's son Lorenzo took over. To ensure the continuance of his family's success, Lorenzo planned his children's future careers for them.
He groomed the headstrong Piero II to follow as his successor in civil leadership; Giovanni  future Pope Leo X was placed in the church at an early age; and his daughter Maddalena was provided with a sumptuous dowry to make a politically advantageous marriage to a son of Pope Innocent VIII that cemented the alliance between the Medici and the Roman branches of the Cybo and Altoviti families.
The conspiracy involved the Pazzi and Salviati families, both rival banking families seeking to end the influence of the Medici, as well as the priest presiding over the church services, the Archbishop of Pisaand even Pope Sixtus IV to a degree.
The conspirators approached Sixtus IV in the hopes of gaining his approval, as he and the Medici had a long rivalry themselves, but the pope gave no official sanction to the plan. Despite his refusal of official approval, the pope nonetheless allowed the plot to proceed without interfering, and, after the failed assassination of Lorenzo, also gave dispensation for crimes done in the service of the church.
Unfortunately, all of Lorenzo's careful planning fell apart to some degree under his incompetent son Piero II, who took over as the head of Florence after his father's death. Piero was responsible for the expulsion of the Medici from to The Medici additionally benefited from the discovery of vast deposits of alum in Tolfa in Alum is essential as a mordant in the dyeing of certain cloths and was used extensively in Florence, where the main industry was textile manufacturing.
Before the Medicis', the Turks were the only exporters of alum, so Europe was forced to buy from them until the discovery in Tolfa. Pius II granted the Medici family a monopoly on the mining there, making them the primary producers of alum in Europe. Action must be taken I have decided, with your approval, to sail for Naples immediately, believing that as I am the person against whom the activities of our enemies are chiefly directed, I may, perhaps, by delivering myself into their hands, be the means of restoring peace to our fellow-citizens.
As I have had more honour and responsibility among you than any private citizen has had in our day, I am more bound than any other person to serve our country, even at the risk of my life.
With this intention I now go. Perhaps God wills that this war, which began in the blood of my brother and of myself, should be ended by any means.
My desire is that by my life or my death, my misfortune or my prosperity, I may contribute to the welfare of our city I go full of hope, praying to God to give me grace to perform what every citizen should at all times be ready to perform for his country.
This century-long rule was interrupted only on two occasions between — and —when anti-Medici factions took control of Florence. Following the assassination of Duke Alessandro, power passed to the "junior" Medici branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elderthe youngest son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I "the Great.
The family's influence grew with its patronage of wealth, art, and culture. Ultimately, it reached its zenith in the papacy and continued to flourish for centuries afterward as Dukes of Florence and Tuscany.The city proper has about million inhabitants (in ), but when including the surrounding metropolitan area the population of the conurbation totals more than million, and the Commuting Basin (Greater Milan, more than 70 km large and 60 km wide) totals about million (the fourth most populated European metropolitan area after London, Paris and the Ruhr area).
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Worldly. Milan. members of the Visconti family established themselves as dukes of Milan and extended their power over all of Lombardy. The last Visconti ruler of Milan died in dominated the city at a time when Florence was the cultural center of Italy.
During the . Conquered the city of Milan after the last member of the Visconti family died and became the new duke. Sforza was the leader of a band of mercenaries. Essay Examples.
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browse by type. Get Expert. The Triumphant History of the City of Florence Over the Dukes of Milan. words. 1 page. A Brief History of the Pioneer Generation of the Renaissance Artists: Masaccio, Donatello and Brunelleschi.
words. It may lack the allure of Venice or Florence, but Milan’s rich mix makes for an enjoyable city break. The Spectator when editors would fight over who got to do Paris or New York fashion weeks, keen to avoid the Italian city. and details from previous Dukes of Milan; the city’s varied history etched into its walls.
The interior. Palazzo Pitti is one of Florence’s biggest museum. It is a powerful looking,13th century building that holds 5 museums within its halls and is directly connected to the beautiful Boboli Gardens.