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Already in 1 and 2 Maccabees, Roman power is figured as a factor in the negotiation of Ioudaismos and Hellenismos, and at least since Flavius Josephus, the writing of Jewish history in Greek presumes a Roman gaze.
Since Josephus, moreover, the first Jewish revolt against Rome ce has been a primary pivot and problem for recounting the fate of the Jewish people under foreign rule.
Unless exempted by the student’s dissertation committee, at least 6 of these credits should be in an ancient language. No more than 6 credits can come from level courses. Qualifying Examination. Students must meet the Ph.D. qualifying exam requirements specified by the cooperating department. Supernaturalistic god helps those who help themselves essay in urdu scampered give oneself up writing a methodology for a dissertation near ‘ homework page’ nobody dissertation service uk methodology. All Lab, No Lecture (DIY Science) [Robert Bruce Thompson, Barbara . This volume revisits issues of empire from the perspective of Jews, Christians, and other Romans in the third to sixth centuries. Through case studies, the contributors bring Jewish perspectives to bear on longstanding debates concerning Romanization, Christianization, and late antiquity.
The revolt serves as the stormy horizon for the Judaean War and Antiquities alike—two works that represent the culmination of Hellenistic Jewish historiography but also the last known Jewish-authored historical writings until the Middle Ages. To be sure, much ancient Jewish literature effaces the specificity of Roman rule.
In the apocalyptic imagination, Rome could be collapsed into Babylon; and in the midrashic imagination, Jewish life in the Roman Empire could be folded into the Deuteronomistic dichotomy of Israel and the nations.
Among some rabbis, their relationship could even be reread as a rivalry between two commensurate powers, like the wrestling of Jacob and Esau. Nevertheless, in the Sages' Edom—as in the Kittim of the Qumran literature and in the blurred Babylon-cum-Rome of 4 Ezra and Revelation—we glimpse hints of engagement with a distinctive imperial culture, not so neatly mapped onto biblical models or onto the historical precedents provided by Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid, Ptolemaic, or Seleucidic rule.
Furthermore, as much as a fantasy of isolation envelops the literature of Palestinian rabbis, the ideal of separateness may betray something of the Romanness of its motives and settings. That Roman power is implicated in rabbinic authority, after all, is suggested in the origin myths of the rabbis themselves, wherein the establishment of Yavneh is retrospectively tied to the Roman razing of Jerusalem, as Judaism resurrected—with Roman imperial ratification—from the ashes of the Second Temple.
The present volume attends to such paradoxes, subtleties, and ironies of empire, supplementing the scholarly discussion about conflicts or contrasts between ancient Jews and Romans, with reflections on the experiences of ancient Jews as Romans.
Much distinguished Jews from others in the Roman Empire, and there is no dearth of sophisticated studies exploring the ramifications of such differences for Jews and Christians in the Land of Israel as well as the Diaspora. It remains, however, that Rome is also the functioning context of almost all early Jewish and Christian literature.
Recent attention to the Sasanian Persian settings of the major exceptions to this pattern—the Babylonian Talmud and Syriac Christian literature—serves to sharpen, by comparison, our sense of the Romanness of so much of the surviving evidence for ancient Judaism and Christianity.
Not only is Palestinian Judaism our best-attested example of a Roman provincial culture, but the situation, stance, and strategies of Palestinian rabbis share much more than is commonly noted with Greek, Syrian, Egyptian, and other local sub-elites who simultaneously subverted, absorbed, and manipulated Roman norms.
The essays in this volume address such overlaps—highlighting the Romanness of rabbis and other late antique Jews living in the empire, revisiting issues of Jewish and Christian difference in triangulation with Greek prestige and Roman power, and grappling anew with the Christianization of the Roman Empire by considering the role of Jews real and imagined in developments traditionally studied in terms of Christians and "pagans.
It is also a timely moment to explore the implications of their typicality and exceptionalism for understanding the meaning and limits of Roman power, on the one hand, and the parallel paradox of persecuted and imperialized Christianity, on the other.
In recent decades, subjects of empire have attracted fresh attention within the fields of Jewish Studies, Classics, and Late Antiquity, inspired in part by postcolonial theorists pressed by modern examples to retheorize agency, destabilize the idea of identity at center and periphery, and highlight the role of local elites in producing the illusion of imperial stability.
Such work reminds us that no text can be fully understood apart from the power relations in which its authors and readers are imbricated and implicated.
At the same time, another dominant theoretical trend—the discursive or linguistic turn—has pushed us to recall the opposite: Such theoretical "turns" have resulted in nothing quite so sweeping as the paradigm shifts in research on ancient Judaism and Christianity in the wake of World War II.
Here, as elsewhere, the dramatic revisionism of the late twentieth century has now given way to deeper rethinkings with more gradual and incremental gains.
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Nevertheless, the ramifications are perhaps no less significant—not least for opening new types of conversations between social historians of Judaism and scholars of Jewish literature, as well as among specialists in ancient Judaism, Christianity, and the Roman Empire.
Accordingly, our concern in this volume is not to promote, debate, or critique any one model or perspective, nor to forefront the data of any single genre, corpus, medium, or locale.
What we seek to convey, rather, are multiple efforts at reorientation, in direct or indirect engagement with the hermeneutical and historiographical challenges noted above, but—above all—guided by problems in specific sets of evidence.
Not only do the contributors resist romantic narratives about dramatic difference or intractable change, but they draw our attention to the textures of different relevant data for the period, evoking something of the warp and woof of Jewish and Christian life under Roman imperial rule.
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As much as the chapters in this volume concern themselves with Jews, Christians, and other Romans, the reader will find little in the way of traditional modes and models of comparison, as predicated on the parallel analysis of "religions," "identities," or "cultures," projected as discrete yet commensurable entities.
Sidestepping questions about determination of the priority and directionality of influence, our contributors press on to explore more subtle and surprising patterns—ambivalences and asymmetries, ironies and reversals, differences predicated on similarity and similarities predicated on difference.
If contributors resist the older temptation to reduce the Jewishness of a text or group to some point along an imagined axis of reaction to a "Graeco-Roman context," they also avoid easy recourse to more recent truisms concerning identity as constructed through the discourse of alterity.
What is here brought to the fore are case studies that reveal some of the telling tensions that Romanness could produce for Jewishness and Christianness—as attested even especially? A mishnah, liturgical poem, marriage contract, or synagogue fresco might appear to be sufficiently explained by its rabbinic or Jewish context.Supernaturalistic god helps those who help themselves essay in urdu scampered give oneself up writing a methodology for a dissertation near ‘ homework page’ nobody dissertation service uk methodology.
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If you go to the College Board AP US History Exam website, you can view released prompts and suggested document analysis. No conflict exam requests will be accepted after March 3. DO NOT make any travel plans until the final exam schedule is published on eLion (around February 15).
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