Received Apr 26; Accepted Aug 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This meta-analysis of published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is.
Several effect sizes were moderated by parent and child gender, child age, informant on parenting, and delinquency type, indicating that some parenting behaviors are more important for particular contexts or subsamples. Although both dimensions of warmth and support seem to be important, surprisingly very few studies focused on parenting styles.
Implications for theory and parenting are discussed. Child-rearing, Delinquency, Meta-analysis, Moderators, Development Parents of young people are often blamed for the delinquent behavior of their children.
In some courts parents are even penalized for the antisocial conduct of their children e. Although lay as well as scholarly theories assume that a link between parenting and delinquency exists, clear conclusions concerning the magnitude of this link are difficult to draw.
An important reason for this difficulty is the heterogeneity of the studies and their findings in this field of research. Studies vary on the kinds of delinquency and parenting dimensions that are investigated, on how these constructs are measured, and on the populations from which the samples are drawn.
In a series of meta-analyses we summarize and integrate previous findings on the link between parenting and delinquency. The first goal is to analyze which parenting dimensions are related to delinquency and the second is to Juvenile delinquency and parenting styles moderators that affect the parenting—delinquency association.
Research on family antecedents and correlates of delinquency is of direct importance to both theory and practice. Interest in the family was apparent in early theories on social disorganization Gove and Crutchfield ; Van Voorhis et al.
Other theories such as those of Moffittand Patterson e. These negative child-parent transactions increase the risk of setting a child off on a delinquent path that starts in the early teens, entails many delinquent acts and persists far into adulthood Moffitt ; Patterson and Yoerger Moreover, insight in these processes is essential for the development or improvement of prevention and intervention strategies.
Therefore, knowledge on the link between parenting and delinquency has implications for prevention and intervention policies focusing on delinquency, in particular parent education and skills training.
Conceptual Framework Two perspectives have been adopted in the parenting literature: Although various parenting dimensions have been proposed see for an overview Holdentwo key dimensions, support and control, have been used to assess the quality of parenting behavior Maccoby and Martin The support dimension also labeled warmth, responsiveness or acceptance—rejection by some scholarsrefers to parental behaviors toward the child that makes the child feel comfortable, accepted and approved Rollins and Thomas The support dimension can be represented as a range of positive and negative behavioral aspects such as acceptance, affection, love, support, warmth, responsiveness, sensitivity, communication and intimacy, but also hostility, neglect, and rejection Rohner ; Rollins and Thomas ; Ten Haaf These various aspects of parental support, whether negative or positive can be placed along the continuum of low to high support and is generally considered to be unidimenstional Ten Haaf et al.
For example, rejection is represented by low scores and acceptance by high scores. In general, supportive parenting behaviors are negatively linked to delinquency, indicating that high levels of support and warmth are associated with low levels of delinquency and that low levels of support or even rejection are linked to high levels of delinquency e.
The control dimension also labeled demandingnesshas been defined as placing demands on and controlling the child. Some scholars have argued that control should not be viewed as unidimensional, since this dimension could be further divided into separate constructs with different meanings.
A common approach is to distinguish between authoritative control and authoritarian control Baumrind In general, authoritative control has positive effects on child behavior, while authoritarian control has been found to have negative effects on the child Baumrind Too strict authoritarian control Farrington and harsh punishment Farrington et al.
More recently, Barber and colleagues have argued for a focus on behavioral and psychological control instead of authoritative and authoritarian control e. Aspects of behavioral control such as monitoring Fischer and consistency in discipline Coughlin and Vuchinich have been associated with low levels of delinquency see also Patterson Psychological control refers to intrusions into the psychological development of the child, such as love withdrawal, keeping the child dependent and the use of guilt to control the child.
Behavioral control is more strongly linked to externalizing problems in adolescents, while psychological control is more strongly associated with internalizing problems Barber et al.
Thus, the parenting dimension control is often seen as a multidimensional concept. In the present analysis, this dimension is separated into either authoritative control and authoritarian control or behavioral control and psychological control.
Besides parenting dimensions, parenting typologies or styles are examined. Elaborating on the work of Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin defined parenting styles according to a two-dimensional framework of support and control.
Accordingly, four parenting styles can be identified: Prior research revealed that an authoritative style had positive effects on child adaptation, whereas the remaining styles place the child at risk for negative child outcomes Maccoby and Martin Neglectful parenting in particular has been linked to delinquent behavior Maccoby and Martin ; Steinberg et al.
In the present study we examine various parenting dimensions, including parental support, and various types of control, and patterns of parenting behaviors i.
We also examine discrete parenting behaviors such as affection, hostility, monitoring, etc.Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature but no r, esearch to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influ-.
family process variables and parenting styles on adolescent delinquency moderated by the effect of the child’s race/ethnicity and gender, and class of the family. Based on. Sep 05, · Parenting styles were differentially linked to delinquency with neglectful parenting linked to moderate desisting and serious persisting and desisting trajectories and authoritarian parenting linked to serious persistent delinquency.
Parenting Styles and Delinquency As children develop. and outside influences on the child that factor more heavily than the schwenkreis.come.
who in turn stand a far greater chance of being labeled juvenile delinquents by the court system (Hoeve. Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is the act of participating in unlawful behavior as minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).
Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers and courts. Juvenile crime often goes undetected in homes with the permissive and neglectful parenting styles because of the low control, demands, and communication.
The parent is often uninvolved and distant in the relationship with the child, if there is any at all.