It is used when we want to predict the value of a variable based on the value of another variable. The variable we want to predict is called the dependent variable or sometimes, the outcome variable. The variable we are using to predict the other variable's value is called the independent variable or sometimes, the predictor variable.
Besides recoding and cleaning variables, a diligent data analyst also must assign variable labels and value labels, unless they choose to wait until after your output is exported to Microsoft Word.
Unfortunately, that option only leaves additional opportunity for error and confusion, not to mention the inefficiency of editing tables in Microsoft Word.
Who among us have not been frustrated while wrestling with Microsoft Word? When used in conjunction with the customizable SPSS table "Looks" function, formatting your variable labels and value labels can make your SPSS results tables nearly ready for publication, immediately after analysis!
Fortunately, SPSS syntax offers a fairly straightforward method for assigning proper labels Information on using spss both your variable labels and value labels. For those of you unsure about the distinction between the two: Variable labels are composed of a few words that describe what a variable represents.
If the variable labels are properly formatted in SPSS, they will show in output tables and graphs, instead of variable names. Value labels are labels for coded variables in our dataset.
For example, "Gender" may be coded 0 Males and 1 Females. The screenshot below shows an example SPSS dataset I created for demonstration purposes as you can see at the bottom of the screenshot, we are seeing the "variable view", as opposed to "data view".
To review, "data view" is used for editing the actual data, whereas "variable view" is used for editing the attributes of the variables such as number of decimal places allowed, type of variable, the variable name, variable label, and value label. In our example below, neither the variable labels 1 nor the value labels 2 have been assigned for any of our four example variables.
Click in the field under "Label" for each variable and simply type in a label.
Click in the field under "Value" on the right side of the field, click on the button that appears when you click in the field initially; see below left Enter the current number code that is assigned with the label that you desire for each code clicking "add" between each code in the dialogue that appears see below right.
Obviously, this can quickly turn into a ridiculously long process. This is when syntax makes things MUCH easier! Here are the steps to assign variable labels: Open a new syntax window by clicking through the following menu path see below: On the next line new line not required, but recommendedfirst type the name of the variable you want to assign a label to in my example, the variable is "Example1"; see below.
On the next line new line not required, but recommendedtype the name of the variable you want to assign a value labels to in my example, the variable is "Example1"; see below.
On the next line new line not required, but recommendedtype the number code that is currently in your data to which you want to assign labels; in my example, the first code is 1followed by a space On the same line as the variable name, insert a space, followed by a "single quote", followed by the label you wish to assign to that numeric code, followed by another "single quote".
SPSS Value Labels Syntax While this may be useful, doing this with only one variable doesn't offer that much improvement over the "point and click" method.
However, when you apply this technique to transform several variables simultaneously, the time saved really begins to accumulate see below. SPSS Syntax screen example 3 There are a few things to pay particular attention to when working with multiple variables at once: Be sure to insert a period after every line in the variable label command as pictured above.
When assigning value labels, a "variable TO variable" format can be used see aboveinstead of listing each variable name separately, as long as the variables are in consecutive order in the dataset and you want to assign the same labels to all of those variables.
SPSS Syntax screen example 4 After you run your syntax, you should now see the information you chose populating the "Label" and "Value" columns of your dataset seen below.
If you also want to specify what codes in your data signify that the data is missing "Missing" column [see above]add the following commands to your syntax:1 Transformations and recoding revisited 5 Introduction 5 Value labels 5 SPSS Tutorial and Help 6 Using online help 6 Using the Syntax Guide 7 Using the statistics coach 8 Moving around the output window 10 Sorting Revisited: Sorting by multiple.
Those who plan on doing more involved research projects using SPSS should follow up this brief intro with more in-depth training. For information about SSCC lab accounts, the labs, Winstat and more see Information for SSCC Instructional Lab Users. SPSS Tutorials: Using SPSS Syntax SPSS syntax is a programming language unique to SPSS that allows you to perform analysis and data manipulation in ways that would be tedious, difficult, or impossible to do through the drop-down menus.
Guide to SPSS Barnard College – Biological Sciences 3 This document is a quick reference to SPSS for biology students at Barnard College.
The focus is on using the program, as . The Benefits of Using SPSS for Survey Data Analysis. Thanks to its emphasis on analyzing statistical data, SPSS is an extremely powerful tool for manipulating and deciphering survey data. Fun fact: The data from any survey collected via SurveyGizmo can be exported to SPSS for detailed analysis.
SPSS is a Business software developed by SPSS Inc.. After our trial and test, the software is proved to be official, secure and free.
Here is the official description for SPSS.