He has done a variety of jobs, including librarian and teacher. He currently resides in Florida. Mules were operated in pairs by a minder, with the help of two boys, known as the little piecer and the big, or side piercer. Source The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the enormous changes that took place with technology, farming, mining, manufacturing, and transportation from the middle of the 18th Century through to the middle of the 19th Century.
It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. It was characterized by the Imperialism and the industrial revolution out of railroadslarge-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraphuse of petroleum and the beginning of electrification.
It also was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use. The concept was introduced by Patrick GeddesCities in Evolutionbut David Landes ' use of the term in a essay and in The Unbound Prometheus standardized scholarly definitions of the term, which was most intensely promoted by Alfred Chandler — However, some continue to express reservations about its use.
Vaclav Smil called the period — "The Age of Synergy " during which most of the great innovations were developed since the inventions and innovations were engineering and science-based.
Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads. Railroads also benefited from cheap coal for their steam locomotives.
This synergy led to the laying of 75, miles of track in the U. Hot blast was the single most important advance in fuel efficiency of the blast furnace as it greatly reduced the fuel consumption for making pig iron, and was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution.
The early technique of hot blast used iron for the regenerative heating medium. Iron caused problems with expansion and contraction, which stressed the iron and caused failure.
Edward Alfred Cowper developed the Cowper stove in The Cowper stove was also capable of producing high heat, which resulted in very high throughput of blast furnaces. The Cowper stove is still used in today's blast furnaces. With the greatly reduced cost of producing pig iron with coke using hot blast, demand grew dramatically and so did the size of blast furnaces.
Air blown through holes in the converter bottom creates a violent reaction in the molten pig iron that oxidizes the excess carbon, converting the pig iron to pure iron or steel, depending on the residual carbon. The Bessemer processinvented by Sir Henry Bessemerallowed the mass-production of steelincreasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, and decreasing the labor requirements.
The key principle was the removal of excess carbon and other impurities from pig iron by oxidation with air blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. The "acid" Bessemer process had a serious limitation in that it required relatively scarce hematite ore  which is low in phosphorus.
Sidney Gilchrist Thomas developed a more sophisticated process to eliminate the phosphorus from iron. In America, although non-phosphoric iron largely predominated, an immense interest was taken in the invention. The next great advance in steel making was the Siemens-Martin process.
The furnace operated at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion. Through this method, an open-hearth furnace can reach temperatures high enough to melt steel, but Siemens did not initially use it in that manner. The Siemens-Martin process complemented rather than replaced the Bessemer process.
Its main advantages were that it did not expose the steel to excessive nitrogen which would cause the steel to become brittleit was easier to control, and that it permitted the melting and refining of large amounts of scrap steel, lowering steel production costs and recycling an otherwise troublesome waste material.
It became the leading steel making process by the early 20th century. The availability of cheap steel allowed building larger bridges, railroads, skyscrapersand ships. With large amounts of steel it became possible to build much more powerful guns and carriages, tanks, armored fighting vehicles and naval ships.
Rail[ edit ] A rail rolling mill in Donetsk The increase in steel production from the s meant that railroads could finally be made from steel at a competitive cost.The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the early to mid s, was punctuated by a slowdown in macroinventions [clarification needed] before the Second Industrial Revolution in 19th Century America. Updated July 30, JUMP TO..
Primary Documents - Timelines - Maps, - From Jefferson to the coming of the Civil War, Manifest Destiny & the Wild West, Industrial Revolution, Women's Rights, Inventions & Railroad History, The Gilded Age, Spanish-American War & Imperialism, The Progressive Era - Populism, Various Misc.
Topics. The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.
The Industrial Revolution was a period when new sources of energy, such as coal and steam, were used to power new machines designed to reduce human labor and increase production. An updated edition of the classic study of the Industrial Revolution by "one of the few genuinely great historians of our century" (The New Republic).
Revolution: Revolution, in social and political science, a major, sudden, and hence typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and structures. The term is used by analogy in such expressions as the Industrial Revolution, where it refers to a radical and profound change in economic.