A Greek temple typically served as the home of a deity statue, before which ceremonies were conducted by priests. Like most cultures throughout history, however, the general population of ancient Greece did not congregate inside temples for religious services. Throughout the Archaic period, these materials were superseded by stone, of which the supreme type was marble.
Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroia group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is simply called ho naos "the temple".
The architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos "the hundred footer" in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture,  and, in the 4th century and later, the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon; the 1st-century-AD writer Plutarch referred to the building as the Hekatompedos Parthenon.
Older Parthenon The first endeavour to build a sanctuary for Athena Parthenos on the site of the present Parthenon was begun shortly after the Battle of Marathon c. This building replaced a hekatompedon meaning "hundred-footer" and would have stood beside the archaic temple dedicated to Athena Polias "of the city".
Further physical evidence of this structure was revealed with the excavations of Panagiotis Kavvadias of — This platform was smaller and slightly to the north of the final Parthenon, indicating that it was built for a wholly different building, now completely covered over.
This picture was somewhat complicated by the publication of the final report on the —90 excavations, indicating that the substructure was contemporary with the Kimonian walls, and implying a later date for the first temple.
One difficulty in dating the proto-Parthenon is that at the time of the excavation the archaeological method of seriation was not fully developed; the careless digging and refilling of the site led to a loss of much valuable information.
An attempt to discuss and make sense of the potsherds found on the Acropolis came with the two-volume study by Graef and Langlotz published in — Parthenon today and as it probably appeared in ancient times In the mid-5th century BC, when the Athenian Acropolis became the seat of the Delian League and Athens was the greatest cultural centre of its time, Pericles initiated an ambitious building project that lasted the entire second half of the century.
The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today — the Parthenon, the Propylaiathe Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike — were erected during this period. The Parthenon was built under the general supervision of the artist Phidiaswho also had charge of the sculptural decoration.
Architecture[ edit ] Floor plan of the Parthenon The Parthenon is a peripteral octastyle Doric temple with Ionic architectural features. It stands on a platform or stylobate of three steps.
In common with other Greek temples, it is of post and lintel construction and is surrounded by columns "peripteral" carrying an entablature. There are eight columns at either end "octastyle" and seventeen on the sides. There is a double row of columns at either end.
The colonnade surrounds an inner masonry structure, the cellawhich is divided into two compartments. At either end of the building the gable is finished with a triangular pediment originally occupied by sculpted figures. The columns are of the Doric orderwith simple capitals, fluted shafts and no bases.
Above the architrave of the entablature is a frieze of carved pictorial panels metopesseparated by formal architectural triglyphstypical of the Doric order.The Parthenon was constructed between BC and BC by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates on the site of two earlier temples, the old Temple of Athena and the older Parthenon which was started in BC and burned by the Persians in BC.
Aug 21, · In B.C., Greek forces sacked the Persian city of Sardis. In B.C., the Persian king sent a naval expedition across the Aegean to attack Athenian troops at Marathon. Located about meters north-west of the famous Acropolis, The Temple of Hephaestus is the best-preserved Greek temple in the world, although it is far less known than its illustrious neighbor.
The temple was built in the 5th century BC in a district which contained many foundries and metalwork shops. Parthenon means ‘house of Parthenos’ which was the name given in the 5th century BCE to the chamber inside the temple which housed the cult statue. The temple itself was known as the mega neos or ‘large temple’ or alternatively as Hekatompedos neos, which referred to the length of the inner cella: ancient feet.
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Get started now! It looks like you've lost connection to our server. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury.
For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire.
|Introduction||Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroia group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is simply called ho naos "the temple".|
|Persian Wars||The first stone temples appeared some time during the early 6th century BC and began to appear in large numbers in the next century. The purpose of a Greek temple was usually to house a cult statue or emblem.|
|ADDITIONAL MEDIA||Directed by the Athenian statesman Periclesthe Parthenon was built by the architects Ictinus and Callicrates under the supervision of the sculptor Phidias. Work began in bce, and the building itself was completed by|
|Classical Greece - HISTORY||The temple is generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric orderthe simplest of the three Classical Greek architectural orders. The Parthenon, Athens, Greece.|
In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a .