Nor to fear for its future as truckloads of Chinese troops took over, each grim-faced soldier rather sinisterly clutching a party balloon. But the expected meltdown to communism never came.
It is a thoroughly commercial cinema: Hong Kong film derives a number of elements from Hollywood, such as certain genre parameters, a "thrill-a-minute" philosophy and fast pacing and editing.
But the borrowings are filtered through elements from traditional Chinese drama and artparticularly a penchant for stylisation and a disregard for Western standards of realism. This, combined with a fast and loose approach to the filmmaking process, contributes to the energy and surreal imagination that foreign audiences note in Hong Kong cinema.
There were 56 Hong Kong films and foreign films released in In the vertically integrated Hollywood film industry of the s, s, and s, these responsibilities were all undertaken by the studios themselves.
The studios made the stars and, due to notoriously restrictive terms imposed by exclusive services contracts, the studios also owned the stars McDonald, In earlier days, beloved performers from the Chinese opera stage often brought their audiences with them to the screen.
For the past three or four decades, television has been a major launching pad for movie stardom, through acting courses and widely watched drama, comedy and variety series offered by the two major stations. Possibly even more important is the overlap with the Cantonese pop music industry.
Many, if not most, movie stars have recording sidelines, and vice versa; this has been a key marketing strategy in an entertainment industry where American-style, multimedia advertising campaigns have until recently been little used Bordwell, In the current commercially troubled climate, the casting of young Cantopop idols such as Ekin Cheng and the Twins to attract the all-important youth audience is endemic.
In the small and tightly knit industry, actors as well as other personnel, such as directors are kept very busy. During previous boom periods, the number of movies made by a successful figure in a single year could routinely reach double digits.
Budgets[ edit ] Films are typically low-budget when compared with American films. Language and sound[ edit ] Films in the Cantonese language have been made in Hong Kong since the beginning.
In the s, it also became a center of Mandarin language film making after the Communist takeover in mainland China and the entertainment industry shifted from Shanghai to Hong Kong.
From the s to mids, Mandarin film productions became dominant, especially those made by the Shaw Brothers studio in Hong Kong.
For decades, films were typically shot silentwith dialogue and all other sound dubbed afterwards. In the hectic and low-budget industry, this method was faster and more cost-efficient than recording live sound, particularly when using performers from different dialect regions; it also helped facilitate dubbing into other languages for the vital export market for example, Standard Mandarin for mainland China and Taiwan.
Many busy stars would not even record their own dialogue, but would be dubbed by a lesser-known performer. Shooting without sound also contributed to an improvisatory filmmaking approach.
Movies often went into production without finished scripts, with scenes and dialogue concocted on the set; especially low-budget productions on tight schedules might even have actors mouth silently or simply count numbers, with actual dialogue created only in the editing process.
A trend towards sync sound filming grew in the late s and this method is now the norm, partly because of a widespread public association with higher quality cinema. Very little of this work is extant: Detailed accounts of this period therefore have inherent limitations and uncertainties.
Pioneers from the stage[ edit ] As in most of China, the development of early films was tightly bound to Chinese operafor centuries the dominant form of dramatic entertainment.
Opera scenes were the source for what are generally credited as the first movies made in Hong Kong, two short comedies entitled Stealing a Roasted Duck and Right a Wrong with Earthenware Dish.
The director was stage actor and director Liang Shaobo. In another borrowing from opera, Lai played the role of wife himself. His brother played the role of husband, and his wife a supporting role as a maid, making her the first Chinese woman to act in a Chinese film, a milestone delayed by longstanding taboos regarding female performers Leyda, Zhuangzhi was the only film made by Chinese American Film, founded by Lai and Brodsky as the first movie studio in Hong Kong, and was never actually shown in the territory Stokes and Hoover, Inthey moved their operation to the Mainland after government red tape blocked their plans to build a studio.
Hong Kong was a major center for Cantoneseone of the most widely spoken, and political factors on the Mainland provided other opportunities.On July 1, , Hong Kong was peaceably handed over to China in a ceremony attended by numerous Chinese and British dignitaries.
Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except defense and foreign affairs. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. Find stories, updates and expert opinion.
Although British did not conquer China territoriality, however they defeated the Chinese in the two opium wars, which gave the British free access to narcotic trade to China. The first opium war led to the treaty of Nanking, and annexation of Hong Kong. Furthermore, the language of English and British culture highly impacted the society of Hong Kong and Southern China for over a century.
This Research Guide is divided into four main components. The first section is devoted to the definitions and qualifications of imperialism. The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India.
The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and .